Bloom's Classification of Cognitive Skills

Bloom’s levels of cognitive skills are provided in the table below, along with definitions for each skills, and related behaviors. The terms can be used to create student learning outcomes that tap into each of the ability levels.

Bloom's Classification of Cognitive Skills



Related Behaviors

Knowledge recalling or remembering something without necessarily understanding, using, or changing it define, describe, identify, label, list, match, memorize, point to, recall, select, state
Comprehension understanding something that has been communicated without necessarily relating it to anything else alter, account for, annotate, calculate, change, convert, group, explain, generalize, give examples, infer, interpret, paraphrase, predict, review, summarize, translate
Application using a general concept to solve problems in a particular situation; using learned material in new and concrete situations apply, adopt, collect, construct, demonstrate, discover, illustrate, interview, make use of, manipulate, relate, show, solve, use
Analysis breaking something down into its parts; may focus on identification of parts or analysis of relationships between parts, or recognition of organizational principles analyze, compare, contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect, distinguish, identify, illustrate, infer, outline, point out, select, separate, sort, subdivide
Synthesis reading something new by putting parts of different ideas together to make a whole. blend, build, change, combine, compile, compose, conceive, create, design, formulate, generate, hypothesize, plan, predict, produce, reorder, revise, tell, write
Evaluation judging the value of material or methods as they might be applied in a particular situation; judging with the use of definite criteria accept, appraise, assess, arbitrate, award, choose, conclude, criticize, defend, evaluate, grade, judge, prioritize, recommend, referee, reject, select, support

Source: The information table above was derived from information presented on the Ball State University's web site, which was accessed in the summer of 2005.

Additional Links Related to Bloom’s Taxonomy